Graduate (Medieval History) of St Andrews University in Scotland and (International Relations) of the University of Pennsylvania USA. Jean Monnet Chair of European Integration and Director of the Centre for European Studies at the University of Limerick. Previously Lecturer, Senior Lecturer and Reader in Political Science at the Queens University Belfast. Principal research interests have been ethnic conflict, political violence, peace studies, and European integration. Among his books are:Nation Class and Creed in Northern Ireland (Gower 1983), Political Change in Spain (Routledge 1989), A Future for Peacekeeping? (Macmillan 1998), Who Are the Europeans Now? (Ashgate 2004). He has held visiting appointments at Wesleyan University, Harvard University and Hollins University (as Fulbright Scholar) in the USA; Trinity College Dublin in Ireland; Corvinus University in Hungary; and the UN Peace University in Costa Rica. Represented Queens University, and then Limerick University on the RIA Committee for the Study of International Affairs.