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Irish Children in 18th Century Schools and Institutions Definition of School Types

A list of definitions of the school types used as part of the project.

  • Public schools are those schools where children were specifically instructed in groups with other children and where parents paid set annual or quarterly fees.
  • Private education is that obtained in the home through a tutor or governess or single instructor.
  • Pay Schools also known as Hedge Schools or Popish Schools are those schools generally conducted in contravention of the Penal Laws and acting independently of government and the Established Church authorities.
  • Parish schools are those established under the reign of Henry VIII.
  • Diocesan and Free schools are those schools established under the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
  • Royal Schools are those established by Charter of the Stuart monarchy.
  • Charter Schools are those schools established from 1733 by a Charter of George II by The Incorporated Society for Erecting English Protestant Schools in the Kingdom of Ireland.
  • Erasmus Smith Schools are those established under the terms of the bequest of the London merchant Erasmus Smith from 1657 by the Erasmus Smith Trust.
  • Charity schools are those promoted by Rev. Edward Nicholson and Rev. John Richardson and established from 1704 throughout the country by individuals and groups.
  • French schools were established in Ireland both as small public and charity schools by the Huguenot refugees in Ireland. A French or continental education was also obtained by those children sent in contravention of the Penal Laws abroad for their education.
  • Quaker schools are those established by The Society of Friends.

A rudimentary education was provided by the governors of the Workhouses at Dublin and Cork but by 1800 a more formal curriculum had been adopted.

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